L'Église de L'Orient
301 (or 314): conversion of Armenia to Christianity. This country became the first officially Christian state, even before the Roman Empire.
Around 335 the monk Cosmas Indicopleustès found Christian communities in southern India and Ceylon.
424: the Churches of Mesopotamia and Persia proclaimed themselves independent, to no longer be suspected of supporting the Roman Empire; thus was born the Church of the East.
431: Nestorian theses are considered heretical at the Council of Ephesus. Nestorians affirm that two different persons coexist in Jesus Christ: one divine and perfect, the other human and fallible.
451: the Council of Chalcedon proclaims the one person of Christ in two natures, divine and human. This dogma, accepted by the majority of Churches both in the West and in the East (from Greece to the Caucasus), is rejected by certain Churches of the East, those called "of the three councils", and wrongly called "Monophysites".
484: The Church of the East adopts Nestorianism as its official doctrine.
7th - 8th centuries: three of the centers of Eastern Christianity (Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem) fall into the hands of the Muslims,: Christian life continues there, with the status of dhimmis ("protected"), but only Constantinople and Rome keep their political freedom.
687: the Maronite Church breaks with Constantinople.
9th century: evangelization of the Slavic peoples. The Western Slavs (in the geographical, non-linguistic sense: Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats) are attached to Rome, the Eastern Slavs (Serbs, Bulgarians and Kievan Rus') to Constantinople.
1054: during the Schism of 1054, Constantinople and Rome mutually excommunicate. The Churches remaining in the "communion of the seven councils" (of which Constantinople is the main center) constitute the "Orthodox Church", while the Church of Rome, called the "Catholic Church", will still have 14 councils.
1182: the Maronite Church entered into communion with Rome during the Crusades: it is the oldest of the “Eastern Catholic Churches”.
1439-1445: at the Council of Florence, the Catholic Church decides to grant liturgical freedom to the Churches of the East in exchange for their recognition of the authority of the Pope and Catholic dogmas.
1551: Rome has its authority recognized by certain faithful of the Church of the East, hence the Chaldean Catholic Church.
1589: creation of the Moscow Patriarchate which proclaimed itself “third Rome” (the second being Constantinople) and new center of Orthodoxy. From now on, half of Orthodox Christians live under Muslim domination (mainly Ottoman Turks): only the inhabitants of the three Romanian-speaking principalities (also vassals of the Turks, but autonomous) of Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, and those of Russia escape. . From then on, Russia posed itself as champion and protector of all Orthodox people.
1596: through the union of Brest, part of the Ukrainian Orthodox united with Rome, while retaining the Byzantine rite. They form the third Eastern Catholic Church.
1697: through the union of Alba-Iulia, part of the Romanian Orthodox united with Rome, while retaining the Byzantine rite. They form the fourth Eastern Catholic Church.
17th century: thanks to the efforts of the Maronites, the authority of Rome is recognized by part of the Orthodox Church of Antioch (Chalcedonian), the Syro-Jacobite Church (Monophysite) and the Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia (Miaphysite) . Thus the Melkite Greek Catholic, Syriac Catholic and Armenian Catholic Churches were created, bringing the number of Eastern Catholic Churches to 7.
19th century: pressure from Russia and the weakening of the Turkish Empire lead to the progressive liberation of Eastern Christians in the Caucasus and the Balkans; those of Anatolia, on the other hand (mainly Greeks and Armenians), remained under Turkish domination, and were expelled from Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century in application of the Treaty of Lausanne.
20th century and 21st century: the increase in international tension, following the Israeli/Palestinian opposition and, through the play of alliances and solidarity, Western Christians/Muslim world, led to a decreasing tolerance of Muslim majorities towards Christian minorities in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Azerbaijan, hence a continued emigration of Christians, especially Melkite, Syriac and Armenian Catholics, linked to Rome and therefore often considered as agents Western influence